|1891||The Society of the Elect and the Association of Helpers – (also known as the “Secret Society,”), was created by Cecil Rhodes, Alfred Milner, William T. Stead, Reginald Baliol Brett, and Lord Esher, in London. Rhodes died in 1902, leaving the society, and his fortune, under the control of Milner, who established the Rhodes Scholar program. Good background here.|
|1910||The Round Table – a periodical, first published by Milner’s “Secret Society” for Britain’s intellectual community. The writers, and those associated with the publication became known as the Round Table Group, and later, the Chatham House crowd. Comprehensive background.|
|1912||Edward Mandell House – published Philip Dru: Administrator,a novel describing how the world could best be governed by a benevolent administrator. House traveled in Europe in 1909, and met Woodrow Wilson November 25, 1911. Chronology: Met Sir Edward Grey (member of Milner’s group) in 1913.|
|1913||Woodrow Wilson, U.S. President – Edward Mandell House served as Wilson’s campaign manager, and then as chief advisor. Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
Federal Reserve Act enacted – creating the first “central bank” in America. Paul Warberg, whose family controlled the Reichsbank in Germany, was the architect of the system.
|1914||World War I Begins – Wilson campaigned against U.S. entry into the war, then entered the war in 1917, one year before it ended.|
|1918||Wilson’s 14 Points – presented to a joint session of Congress on January 8. The document was developed by Colonel Mandell House and advisors known as the “Inquiry.”
The League of Nations – first proposed in The Round Table, in December, in an article entitled The League of Nations: A Practical Suggestion, written by Edward Mandell House and Lionel Curtis, a member of the original Rhodes/Milner “Secret Soceity.”
|1919||Paris Peace Conference – House is Wilson’s chief deputy at the conference where he expanded his association with leaders of the Milner group.
Genesis of the CFR and RIIA – At a meeting on May 30, at the Majestic Hotel in Paris, Edward M. House, Lionel Curtis, Lord Eustace Percy, Harold Temperley, Herbert Hoover, Christian Herter, James T. Shotwell (Columbia), Charles Seymore (Yale), Archibald C. Coolidge (Harvard), were among 50 individuals who decided to create the Council on Foreign Relations in the U.S., and the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London.
The Treaty of Versailles – signed June 28, ended the war and incorporated The Covenant of the League of Nations as the first 30 Articles – very much as had been proposed by House and Curtis.
|1920||League of Nations rejected by U.S. Senate – despite herculean efforts on both sides of the Atlantic.
Royal Institute of International Affairs – organized by the Milner group, housed at the Chatham House in London.
|1921||Council on Foreign Relations – organized as U.S. counterpart to Royal Institute of International Affairs. John W. Davis, attorney to J.P. Morgan, was first president. Paul Warberg and J.D. Rockefeller were among initial funders. Began publishing Foreign Affairs in 1922. Described by Senator Barry Goldwater in 1979.|
|1925||Mein Kampf – published by Adolf Hitler.|
|1929||Stock Market Crash – Sets the stage for world wide depression, international response, and another war.|
|1930||Bank of International Settlements – created in Basel, Switzerland. J.P. Morgan & Company, and others involved with the creation of the Federal Reserve, were among the founders.|
|1932||Franklin D. Roosevelt – begins his presidency amid the great depression. “The New Deal” was formulated by leftist, Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture, and Secretary of State, Cordell Hulll, who, as a Senator, supported Wilson’s League of Nations. Hull began drafting a United Nations Charter two weeks after Pearl Harbor.|
|1933||The Wilderness Society – founded by Bob Marshall, a socialist.|
|1936||National Wildlife Federation – founded.|
|1938||World marches toward war – A chronology of events leading to World War II, the event which gave rise to the United Nations.|
|1941||FDR delivers “Four Freedoms” speech – (January 6), and the Atlantic Conference (August 14), embody the idea of disarming sovereign nations under international authority.
Declaration of War on Japan (December 8); Declaration of War on Germany (December 11).
|1942||Declaration by “United Nations” – first official use of the name “United Nations,” suggested by Roosevelt. Chronnology of related events.|
|1943||Moscow Conference – Articles 5 – 7 refer to “United Nations” and post-war permanent organization.
United Nations Association – created by Eleanor Roosevelt.
|1944||Bretton Woods Agreements – created the World Bank , and the International Monetary Fund . Henry Morganthau delivered the closing address. (Background and conference details.)
Dumbarton Oaks Conversations – produce the draft recommendations for a United Nations organization. The U.S. Team, led by Edward Stettinius, included Alger Hiss, Ralph Bunche, Leo Pasvolsky, and Grayson Kirk. Overview of the meeting.
|1945||Yalta Conference – (February) reached agreement on U.N. draft recommendations and set the date for U.N. conference. Germany surrenders (May 7).
U.N. Charter – signed June 26, in San Francisco. Ratified by Senate (89-2) July 28.
International Court of Justice – established in The Hague.
August 6, & 9, atomic bombs dropped on Japan. Japan surrenders (August 14).
UNESCO – created in London, November 16.
|1946||U.S. joins UNESCO – Julian Huxley, president of the Eugenics Society, and author of “The New Divinity”, first Director. Socialist Joseph Needham, appointed Director of Natural Science.
World Health Organization created.
|1947||World Federalist Association – founded in Asheville, North Carolina
World Federalist Movement – founded in Switzerland.
|1948||IUCN Created – by Julian Huxley, in Geneva. Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland The U.S. Government, and several agencies are members.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights – adopted by U.N. General Assembly
Environmental Education – concept introduced to the U.N. by the IUCN.
|1949||UNESCO Publication 356 – “Toward World Understanding.”|
|1951||The Nature Conservancy – organized.|
|1959||United Nations Development Program – evolved to maturity.|
|1960||Temple of Understanding – organized in New York. Dr. Robert Muller on Advisory Board.|
|1961||Freedom From War – State Department Publication 7277, setting forth U.S. disarmament policy in favor of U.N. peacekeeping.
World Wildlife Fund – organized by Julian Huxley and IUCN.
|1964||Wilderness Act of 1964 – and how it came to be.
UNCTAD – United Nations Conference on Trade and Development established.
|1968||ECOSOC Resolution 1296 – directed by Dr. Robert Muller, establishes “Consultative Status” for NGOs (non-government organizations). Lucis Trust among first NGOs accredited.
Club of Rome – organized, and published Limits to Growth.
|1970||First Earth Day – founder, Gaylord Nelson. Another view of Earth Day.
World Conference on Religion and Peace – opened headquartrs at the U.N. Center. Held conference in Kyoto, Japan, was accredited by ECOSOC in 1973.
Environmental Protection Agency – created.
|1971||RAMSAR Treaty on Wetlands – signed in Ramsar, Iran. IUCN driving force behind RAMSAR.|
|1972||Clean Water Act – passed by Congress. Wetland definition expanded by lawsuit brought by National Wildlife Federation, resulting in “Tulloch” decision in 1993. Tulloch overturned in 1997.
World Heritage Convention – adopted by UNESCO. Technical Review.
Earth Summit I – First U.N. Conference on Environment. Maurice Strong Conference leader.
James Parks Morton became dean of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City.
|1973||CITES Signed – (March 3 – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). IUCN and WWF driving force behind CITES. Endangered Species Act – became U.S. law.
U.N. Environment Program – launched with Maurice Strong first Executive Director.
Trilateral Commission – formed, most participants also members of Council on Foreign Relations.
UNEP’s Regional Seas Program – expands environmental outreach. Survey of U.S. participation.
|1975||Belgrade Charter – Global Framework for Environmental Education. Promoted by NAAEE|
|1976||HABITAT I – adopts U.N. policy on land. William K. Reilly and Carla Hills signed for U.S.
Federal Land Policy Management Act – adopted.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – becomes international law.
UNIFEM – created to promote womens’ rights.
|1978||Global Taxation – first proposed by James Tobin. Current status.|
|1979||U.S. MAB – (Man and the Biosphere Program) launched by agency agreement with UNESCO.
First World Climate Conference – held in Geneva, Switzerland.
World Core Curriculum – introduced by Dr. Robert Muller, through the Robert Muller Schools.
CEDAW – (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women) adopted by the U.N. General Assembly.
|1980||World Conservation Strategy – published jointly by UNEP, IUCN, and WWF.
MacBride Commission – (International Commission for the Study of Communications Problems. Report: Many Voices, One World. Chaired by Sean MacBride. Early efforts to control communications.
Brandt Commission – (Independent Commission on International Development) chaired by Willy Brandt. Report: North-South: A Program for Survival linked economic equity to development and was beginning of “sustainable development” concept.
|1982||Palme Commission – (Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues). Report: Common Security: A Blueprint For Survival linked security to development. Chaired by Olof Palme.
World Resources Institute – organized with help from Russell E. Train. Gustave Speth first director.
World Charter for Nature – precursor to the Earth Charter.
U.N. Convention on the Law of the seas – which created the International Seabed Authority.
|1985||U.N. Convention on Ozone Depleting Substances – adopted in Vienna, Austria.|
|1987||Montreal Protocol – converts voluntary Ozone Treaty into international law.
Brundtland Commission – (World Commission on Environment and Development). Report: Our Common Future, which defined “sustainable development”. Chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland. Members included Shridath Ramphal and Maurice Strong .
Institute for Global Communications – created by the Tides Fouundtion to facilitate NGO communications.
|1988||Global Forum on Human Survival – held in Oxford, England. Co-sponsored by the Temple of Understanding and the U.N. Committee on Parliamentarians and Population, chaired by James Parks Morton. James Lovelock was the featured speaker. Complete background here .
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change – created by WMO and UNEP.
|1989||Berlin Wall falls – (November 9), USSR begins to disintegrate.
Convention on Rights of the Child – adopted by the U.N.
Climate Action Network – created in Germany to promote climate treaty.
|1990||Global Forum on Human Survival – held in Moscow, hosted by Mikhail Gorbachev, and Javier Perez de Cuellar, chaired by James Parks Morton.
World Summit for Children – held in New York; adopted Plan of Action.
Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) – created by Bella Abzug.
International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) – created at the invitation of the U.N.,to advance Agenda 21 at the local level.
|1991||Caring for the Earth – published jointly by UNEP, IUCN, and WWF.
Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance – origin of Commission on Global Goverance.
|1992||Commission on Global Governance – established. Willy Brandt, with the blessings of Boutros Boutros-Ghali, appointed Ingvar Carlsson and Shridath Ramphal (IUCN president) as co-chairs.
Global Biodiversity Strategy – published jointly by UNEP, IUCN, WWF, and WRI.
U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) – Rio de Janeiro. Chaired by Maurice Strong. Produced: Agenda 21; Convention on Biological Diversity; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Statement of Forest Principles; and the Rio Declaration.
U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development – created to advance Agenda 21.
Earth Council – created in Costa Rica by Maurice Strong to coordinate global implementation of Agenda 21 through “National Councils” on Sustainable Development.
National Religious Partnership for the Environment – outgrowth of Temple of Understanding’s “Joint Appeal.”
The Wildlands Project – published by Dave Foreman, co-founder of Earth First!. Project seeks to convert half of America to wilderness.
|1993||President’s Council on Sustainable Development – created by Executive Order No. 12852 to implement Agenda 21 in America, co-chaired by WRI president, Jonathan Lash.
First Meridian Conference on Global Governance – held in Bolinas, California.
World Conference on Human Rights – in Vienna.
Green Cross – founded by Mikhail Gorbachev.
BIONET – created to promote Convention on Biological Diversity.
|1994||World Trade Organization – formed at Uruguay round of GATT negotiations.
U.N. Conference on Population and Development – in Cairo
|1995||World Summit on Social Development – in Copenhagen.
Commission on Sustainable Development – met in New York.
Fourth World Women’s Congress – in Beijing. Documents.
State of the World Forum – San Francisco, hosted by Mikhail Gorbachev and Maruice Strong.
Our Global Neighborhood – final report released by the Commission on Global Governance.
Analysis – of Commission report.
Global Biodiversity Assessment – released by UNEP. Coordinated by Robert Watson.
|1996||U.N. Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II) – Istanbul. Community Sustainability , U.S. HUD’s report to the conference. Instanbul Declaration on Human Settlements.
Campaign for U.N. Reform – organized to lobby for global governance.
|1997||Al Gore’s report – to the U.N. at Rio +5. A broader view of Agenda 21 implementation.
Kyoto Protocol – Adopted in Kyoto, Japan. Converts voluntary climate change treaty to binding international law. On-site reports.
International Conference on Environment and Society – sponsored by UNESCO in Thessaloniki. Survey of environmental education movement.
|1998||International Criminal Court – created in Rome. On-site reports from Rome.
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) – created to lobby for U.N. gun control.
U.N. Climate Change Conference – in Buenos Aires.
|1999||Charter for Global Democracy – consolidates recommendations of Commission on Global Governance into 12 principles.
World NGO Conference – held in Canada to promote plan for “The Peoples Assembly.”
U.N. Climate Change Conference – in Bonn.
|2000||Earth Charter – final draft.
NGO Millennium Forum – New York, precursor to “The People’s Assembly.”
UNDPI/NGO Forum – August 28 – 30, New York (to strengthen “Civil Society” in UN operations)
Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders – August 28 – 31, New York
State of the World Forum – September 4 – 10, New York
Millennium Assembly – September 5 – 8, New York
Millennium Summit – September 6 -8, New York